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Use information technology creatively Students should have the best opportunities to learn state-of-the-art practices, and learn to ask questions that stretch the uses of the technology. Casual over-use of technological aids can increase the real and psychological distance between living faculty members and living students.

The best teachers and researchers should be thinking about how to design courses in which technology enriches rather than substitutes teaching. The follow-up Report made a final observation which is highly pertinent to the HKU curriculum reform:. Budgets are a matter of priorities.

Unless improving undergraduate education is considered a top priority by both faculty and administrators, undergraduate education at research universities will evolve slowly at best.


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Research universities share a special set of characteristics and experience a range of common challenges in relation to their undergraduate students. If those challenges are not met, undergraduates can be denied the kind of education they have a right to expect at a research university, an education that, while providing the essential features of general education, also introduces them to inquiry-based learning. What is needed now is a new model of undergraduate education at research universities that makes the baccalaureate experience an inseparable part of an integrated whole.

Universities need to take advantage of the immense resources of their graduate and research programs to strengthen the quality of undergraduate education, rather than striving to replicate the special environment of the liberal arts colleges. There needs to be a symbiotic relationship between all the participants in university learning that will provide a new kind of undergraduate experience available only at research institutions. Moreover, productive research faculties might find new stimulation and new creativity in contact with bright, imaginative, and eager baccalaureate students, and graduate students would benefit from integrating their research and teaching experiences.

Research universities are distinctly different from small colleges, and they need to offer an experience that is a clear alternative to the college experience. Universities must recognize the urgency of addressing misdirections and inadequacies in the undergraduate experience, sharpen their own plans and timelines, and move quickly beyond the realm of interesting experiments and innovations to that of the institutionalization of genuine reform.

The recommendations made in the report include both general statements on issues of particular importance and specific suggestions for achieving the improvements recommended. Together they envision a major overhaul of baccalaureate education and consequently significant shifts in the balance of relationships of research, graduate, and undergraduate education.

Involving undergraduates in the research process:.

Integrating Academic and Vocational Education: Lessons from Early Innovators

Specific recommendations to implement this model include:. Needs for promoting communication in every course:. Opportunities and dangers in using information technology:. Redesigning graduate education to prepare students for teaching and other professional roles:. This follow-up report describes the extent to which research universities are dealing with some specifics recommended in that report, based on a survey of administrators responsible for undergraduate programs.

The Boyer Commission called for making research-based learning the standard in research universities, and university programs reflect this goal. Opportunities to participate in research and creative activities are now an established component of undergraduate programs.

Placing Students at the Center: The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model

Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities. Expanding Opportunities for Research-Based Learning. The WSCC model could be one mechanism schools and communities use to improve students' feelings and experiences of self-worth, engagement, purpose, peer support, and teacher support as students become partners in the dissemination of the model. Meaningful youth involvement in promoting the WSCC model needs to be promoted. Learning opportunities to empower youth can be divided into individual empowerment, organizational empowerment, and community empowerment.

Community empowerment refers to the provision of opportunities for citizen participation at the local, state, and national level and the ensuing efforts to improve lives, organizations, and the community. While these relationships usually occur within youth organizations or in democratic schools, they could become one mechanism for disseminating the WSCC model.

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Imagine a school where democracy is more than a buzzword, and involvement is more than attendance. It is a place where all adults and students interact as co-learners and leaders, and where students are encouraged to speak out about their schools. Picture all adults actively valuing student engagement and empowerment, and all students actively striving to become more engaged and empowered.

Envision school classrooms where teachers place the experiences of students at the center of learning, and education boardrooms where everyone can learn from students as partners in school change… [to improve not only education outcomes but also health outcomes]. What can schools do to empower students and support student voice? The authors suggest adapting 4 goals identified by Fletcher, 25 to include a health focus as well as a school improvement focus:.

Engage all students at all grade levels and in all subjects as contributing stakeholders in teaching, learning, and leading in school [to ensure that student needs are being met]. Expand the common expectation of every student to become an active and equal partner in school change [that includes health-promoting student support programs and services as cornerstones of school improvement].

Provide students and educators with sustainable, responsive, and systemic approaches to engaging all students [in school improvement and health promotion] and. Validate the experience, perspectives, and knowledge of all students through sustainable, powerful, and purposeful school-oriented and school-community roles. A number of researchers 14 — 16 have provided guidelines and recommendations for schools and communities on how to begin this process by:. In addition, Kania and Kramer 26 identified 5 conditions needed for achieving collective impact on any issue but particularly educational reform that could be instructive for school-community partnerships that support youth engagement and empowerment.

These include a common agenda, shared measurement systems, mutually reinforcing activities, continuous communication, and backbone support functions such as convening partners, conducting needs assessments, developing a shared strategic plan for aligning efforts, selecting success metrics, and designing an evaluation. Hung et al also noted that coordination was the key to promoting school-community partnerships and encouraged a 2-pronged approach: a top-down approach, a more effective initiating force to introduce and support the coordination role; and a bottom-up commitment, including the participation of parents and students, critical for sustaining an initiative.

Students can also play an important role within their own school or district. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 28 recommends that schools and communities establish school health coordinating councils at the community level to facilitate the communication and common goals recommended by Kania and Kramer as well as the professional networks and relationships identified by Hung et al as drivers of quality school health programs. District school health councils collaborate and coordinate with school-level teams. The Center Consolidated School District Colorado , 29 recognizing the importance of a collaborative approach to student health and learning, has a Health Advisory Committee that represents the WSCC components and includes community professionals, school staff, parents, and students.

The district believes that, with support, students can achieve academically and be successful in life.

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Health and wellness efforts are integrated into the work of the Center School District as reflected by a health and wellness goal for the district's Unified Improvement Plan. As administrators, staff, parents and students understand the importance of coordinated school health efforts, they become the school's strongest advocates.

The WSCC model places students in the center for a reason: students are the consumers of the programs and services we, the adults, provide. A student-centered school considers the thoughts and opinions of the students it serves. That means schools must seek out the opinions and ideas of every student, not just those elected to student government or acknowledged as school leaders. This dialogue must begin in elementary grades as students learn how to develop and present a convincing argument and advocate for their own health, safety, engagement, support for learning and academic challenges as well as these supports for their peers.

These skills can be developed, refined, and supported by the implementation of a comprehensive, sequential PreK health education program aligned with the National Health Education Standards. School administrators must regularly engage all students through social media, surveys, town hall meetings, and focus groups. Creating a continuous feedback loop, where comments are welcomed and expected, is critical to supporting student voice. It is critical that students become involved in the conversation at the outset and not after decisions have already been made.

As schools implement the WSCC approach, they must create an ongoing dialog about school health policies, programs and services and ensure that the student body is well-represented in those conversations. Three simple questions are critical to that process: What do students think about the planned policy, program or service? How will the policies, programs, and services impact all students in the school? What would the students do differently if given the opportunity to do so? Ensuring that all students have the skills needed to become effective communicators is but a first step toward creating an environment where students feel safe and supported.

Empowering students as partners in the dissemination of the WSCC model will help generate trust and acceptance and ensure that students' needs are being met. Placing students in the center of the WSCC model makes visible the commitment of education and health to collaboratively prepare today's students for the challenges of today and the possibilities of tomorrow.

We can accomplish this by engaging and empowering students and acknowledging them as capable and valuable partners in the process Figure 2. Source: ASCD 1. The preparation of this paper involved no original research with human subjects. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. The Journal of School Health. J Sch Health. Published online Oct 6. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Address correspondence to: Linda L. Morse, President, gro.

DISCUSSION

Received Aug 2; Accepted Aug 3. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. METHODS A review of the number of students nationwide enjoying the 5 Whole Child tenets reveals severe deficiencies while a review of student-centered approaches, including student engagement and student voice, appears to be one way to remedy these deficiencies.

The updated WSCC approach combines a component coordinated school health model with the original Whole Child Tenets, embedded in the WSCC model: Each student enters school healthy and learns about and practices a healthy lifestyle. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Students' Perceptions of Achieving the 5 Whole Child Tenets Every student deserves to be healthy, safe, engaged, supported, and challenged but evidence suggests that most students do not receive the supports they need to achieve these outcomes.

Fletcher asks adults to: Imagine a school where democracy is more than a buzzword, and involvement is more than attendance.